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Exotic Vector-borne Diseases

The following diseases are very rare in Georgia, but are reported occasionally in people who have lived or traveled internationally. A specific vector is necessary for these diseases to be transmitted, and usually this vector is only found outside of the United States. In some cases, the vector is present in Georgia, but the parasite/virus is not. The risk of these exotic vector-borne diseases becoming endemic in Georgia is considered to be low.

Information for the Public

  • Chikungunya FAQ - Chikungunya is a viral disease that is transmitted to people by mosquitoes. It has occurred in Africa, Southern Europe, Southeast Asia, and islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In late 2013, Chikungunya was found for the first time on islands in the Caribbean. Chikungunya virus is not currently found in the United States. There is a risk that the virus will be imported to new areas by infected travelers.
  • Dengue FAQ - Dengue fever is caused by several related viruses (four different arboviruses). It is transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes, most commonly Aedes aegypti, found in tropic and subtropic regions. This includes portions of Southeast Asia, the Indonesian archipelago into northeastern Australia, parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and parts of South and Central America.
  • Controlling Asian Tiger Mosquitoes - Aedes albopictus is known to be a competent laboratory vector of more than 30 viruses. Several of these viruses are found in Georgia, including eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and LaCrosse encephalitis viruses (LAC). Aedes albopictus has been implicated in the transmission of dengue, but is not a major vector. It has also been implicated in the transmission of Chikungunya virus, and is the major vector for one variant of the disease.
  • Japanese Encephalitis FAQ - Japanese encephalitis is a potentially severe viral disease that is spread by infected mosquitoes in the agricultural regions of Asia.
  • Chagas Disease FAQ - Chagas disease is an insect-transmitted parasitic disease common in South and Central America. 
     
  • Leishmaniasis FAQ - Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease spread by the bite of the sandfly  -
  • Malaria - Malaria is caused by a parasite that is transmitted from one human to another by the bite of infected Anopheles mosquitoes.

Case Report Forms