What Are Opioids?
Opioids are drugs that reduce the feeling of pain. Long-term opioid use can increase the chance of developing opioid use disorder (OUD) – a long-term brain disease that can hurt your physical, mental, and emotional health. Accidental overdose, injury, and death can also occur.
Common opioids include:
- Prescription opioids - codeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone (Vicodin), methadone, morphine, oxycodone (OxyContin), oxymorphone
- Synthetic opioids - heroin, fentanyl
Prescription opioids given by your healthcare provider are generally safe. However, some people may misuse opioids resulting in negative health consequences. People misuse opioids by:
- Taking more medicine than they need
- Taking another person's medication
- Taking medication with the goal of getting high
- Polysubstance Use (mixing drugs)
Synthetic opioids are opioids that are obtained illegally and not provided by a healthcare provider, such as methamphetamines and heroin.
Who is Most at Risk for Opioid Misuse?
Opioid misuse does not affect everyone the same way. Some people may be at higher risk if they:
- Have sleep-disordered breathing, including sleep apnea
- Are pregnant
- Have kidney problems
- Are 65 years of age or older
- Have mental health conditions (e.g. anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, etc.)
- Have a current or past substance use disorder
- Experienced a prior, nonfatal overdose
What Can Happen If Someone Misuses Opioids?
If a person misuses opioids, they are at risk of overdose. Remember these signs if you think someone is experiencing an overdose:
- Unable to wake up
- Awake, but unable to talk
- Limp posture
- Face is pale and clammy
- Pinpoint pupils
- Blue fingernails and lips
- Blue, purple, or gray skin tone
- Very slow, shallow, erratic breathing or no breathing
- Slow, erratic, or no pulse
- Choking sounds or a snore-like gurgling noise (sometimes called the “death-rattle”)
Page last updated 2/22/23